Piracetam (2-oxo-1-pyrrolidine acetamide) is a natural water soluble derivative of the neurotransmitter (brain chemical that relays certain types of messages) GABA (gamma-Aminobutyric acid). It is considered the original nootropic (cognitive enhancer and brain protector) and remains the most popular cognitive enhancer for general use. It is a solid foundation for any cognitive enhancement regimen due to the broad range of positive clinically proven biochemical effects on brain function as well as cardiovascular health. It can be used by people of all age ranges and has been studied longer and far more in-depth than most dietary supplements.
Positively supports normal healthy cognitive & cardiovascular functioning by a multifaceted means of action. Approved & used since 1970’s worldwide (by various Health agencies in Europe, Asia, and South American) for improving health. Is recommended by many healthcare professionals and health organizations, such as the Life Extension Foundation and the American Academy of Anti-aging Medicine (A4M).
: Enhances brain metabolism (By increasing glucose utilization, blood & oxygen flow) [Boosts mental energy & cerebral circulation].
: Increases cerebral phospholipids & cellular membrane fluidity [Supports healthy neuron communication & structure].
: Supports cognitive receptors [Strengthens neurotransmitter receptors involved in memory and neuro-protection].
: Stimulates the Corpus Callosum, an area of the brain that controls communication between the left and right hemispheres (Increases communication between both hemispheres) [Involved in speech and creative thinking].
: Stimulates the Locus Coeruleus, (specialized neurons) [Involved in information processing, attention, cortical/behavioral arousal, learning and memory]
: Inhibits platelet aggregation [Supports healthy blood flow].
: Decreases EEG complexity (Increases cooperatively of brain functional processing) [Positively effects neuro-electrical functioning].
: Has a significant antioxidant effect.
The standard lower dose is 800 mg taken 2-3 times a day. For advance usage up to 4.8-9.6 grams may be taken daily or as needed divided in 2-3 doses. For long term usage it may be best to take weekend breaks.
Effects can be enhanced by several different types of Nootropics. Acetylcholine precursors such as Centrophenoxine, CDP-Choline, and Alpha GPC are widely reported to be of benefit. Many people combine with Aniracetam (a related fat souble compound) for providing related benefits in a longer lasting form and reaching lipid regions of the brain.
Research (In healthy humans)
Int J Psychophysiol 1999 Oct;34(1):81-7
Single-dose piracetam effects on global complexity measures of human spontaneous multichannel EEG.
The results indicate that a single dose of piracetam dose-dependently affects the spontaneous EEG in normal volunteers, showing effects at the lowest treatment level. The decreased EEG complexity is interpreted as increased cooperativity of brain functional processes.
Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1993 Mar;86(3):193-8
Global dimensional complexity of multi-channel EEG indicates change of human brain functional state after a single dose of (Piracetam).
In 5 normal volunteers, 4 records of 16-channel resting EEG were obtained during each of 4 randomized sessions (double blind design) after a single dose of placebo or 2.9 g or 4.8 g or 9.6 g piracetam. Thus, the subtle change of brain global functional state after a single dose of piracetam is reflected by the non-linear measure of global dimensional complexity of the multi-channel EEG.
Single doses of piracetam affect 42-channel event-related potential microstate maps in a cognitive paradigm.
We examined whether a single administration of piracetam produces dose-dependent effects on brain functions in healthy young men. In 6 subjects, 42-channel event-related EEG potential maps (ERP) were recorded during a task requiring subjects to watch single digits presented in a pseudorandom order on a screen and to press a button after all triplets of three consecutive odd or even digits. These segments were tested for direct effects on brain function of three single doses of piracetam (2.9, 4.8 or 9.6 g) and a placebo given double-blind in balanced order. Piracetam mainly affected the map landscape of the time segments following the triplet's last digit. U-shaped dose-dependent effects were found; they were strongest after 4.8 g piracetam. Since these particular ERP segments are recognized to be strongly correlated to cognitive functions, the present findings suggest that single medium doses of piracetam selectively activate differently located or oriented neurons during cognitive steps of information processing.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) 1976 Sep 29;49(3):307-9
Increase in the power of human memory in normal man through the use of (Piracetam).
Nootropyl (Piracetam) …reported to facilitate learning in animals was tested for its effect on man by administering it to normal volunteers. The subjects were given 3x4 capsules at 400 mg per day, in a double blind study. Each subject learned series of words presented as stimuli upon a memory drum. No effects were observed after 7 days but after 14 days verbal learning had significantly increased.
Acta Psychiatr Scand 1976 Aug;54(2):150-60
Piracetam-induced improvement of mental performance. A controlled study on normally aging individuals.
A double-blind, intra-individual cross-over comparison of the mental performance of 18 aging, non-deteriorated individuals during two 4-week periods of Piracetam and placebo administration was performed using conventional and computerized perceptual-motor tasks. In a majority of these tasks the subjects did significantly better when on piracetam than on placebo, a finding consistent with ratings completed by two independent observers.
*These statements have not been evaluated by the FDA. These products are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease.